Is het verplicht om een Hijab aan te doen voor vrouwen? Al-Azhar UK

#Fatwa

Question

Muslim women have recently commemorated a day called “World hijab day”. With all such debate going around Muslim women’s attire, what is the legal ruling regarding hijab and whether it is obligatory in the Shari‘ah?

Answer

It is obligatory for every Muslim woman who has reached puberty to wear the hijab. This ruling is established in the Quran, Sunnah, and by the consensus of the Muslim community. 
In the Quran, God the Almighty says, “O Prophet, tell your wives, your daughters, and women believers to make their outer garments hang low over them” (33:59). 
In the Prophetic traditions, the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said, “O, Asmaa! If a woman reaches menarche nothing should be seen [of her body] except this and this,” and he pointed to her face and hands.” [Abu Dawud, al-Sunan]

This is also the consensus of the Muslims from the earliest generations and their successors. It is necessarily known to all Muslims to be obligatory in religion.

God the Almighty knows best.

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Het huwelijk van de Profeet met de jonge A-ishah

(Het artikel is oorspronkelijk verschenen in een kantnoot van het boek: Seerah van de Profeet Muhammad (vrede zij met hem) gratis uitgegeven door Qur’an-instituut al-Husayn.)

Het gezegende huwelijk van de geliefde Profeet met de 6-a-7 jarige ᶜĀ-ishah, is één van de meest besproken huwelijken van deze tijd. Moslims verheugen zich over dat de moeder der gelovigen ᶜĀ-ishah (onze moeder) de eer heeft gehad zich vanaf haar zesjarige leeftijd te mogen vertoeven in het hof van de geliefde Profeet . Het wordt daarom ook gerekend tot één van haar voortreffelijkheden. Toch zijn er in deze tijd individuen die het gezegende huwelijk als reden aanvoeren om de geliefde Profeet  te beschuldigen van oneervol en immoreel gedrag.

Ze beseffen niet dat de bronnen van de islam die spreken over de legaliteit van een huwelijk met een minderjarige, met doorslaggevende bronnen zijn bewezen.

U zult hierbij een artikel lezen dat het morele aspect van het handelen van de geliefde Profeet behandelt, waarbij hij een huwelijk aanging met Ā-ishah. Het beoogt geen Hadīthkundige ontleding daarvan, wat echter wel het onderwerp zal zijn in een apart artikel op de website van Qurʹān-instituut al-Husayn: De voortreffelijkheid van Ā-ishah op 6-a-7 jarige leeftijd. We zullen dit artikel in twee delen opsplitsen:     
Het eerste gedeelte van het artikel is bedoeld voor de moslim die gelooft in de waarachtigheid van de Qur
ʹān en in de vermeldingen van de nobele Profeet . Omdat een moslim beide zaken al geaccepteerd heeft als een absolute maatstaf, zou er normaliter geen behoefte moeten zijn aan een rationele uitleg. Omdat voor een moslim is het voldoende dat hij weet of een voorschrift van Allāh afkomstig is en of de Profeet zo’n huwelijk toegestaan en of gepraktiseerd heeft. Ondanks dat kan een rationele uitleg wel bijdragen aan een sterker geloof (Itminān al-Qalb).      Het tweede deel van het artikel is bedoeld voor de niet-moslim, die de Profeet Muhammad nog niet heeft weten te accepteren als een gezant van God, of twijfelt aan zijn morele karakter. Het is in dat gedeelte dat we de moraliteit van het huwelijk van hem met een minderjarige, middels rationele bewijsvoering zullen trachten aan te tonen. Middels bewijsvoering zal aangetoond worden dat het verheven karakter van Profeet Muhammad  rein van en ver verheven is boven hetgeen van waar hij van wordt beschuldigd, en sterker nog onrechtmatig slachtoffer is van smaad en laster.

Klik op de link om het artikel te downloaden en te lezen.

Titel: Het huwelijk van de Profeet  met de jonge A-ishah
Auteur: Mohamed Yaseen Khan al-Azhari
Pagina’s: 14
Vrede en zegeninen zij met de geliefde Profeet en met zijn reine echtgenotes.
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Vrouwenerfenis in de Islam een rationeel betoog – Al-Azhar (UK)

Onlangs is er poging gedaan door modernisten om de nobele wetgeving van de geliefde profeet Mohammed vrede zij met hem te ondermijnen. Vanwege hun onbegrip en beperkte kennis hebben zij de goddelijke en profetische wijsheden niet kunnen achterhalen. Het heeft zelfs geleid tot het denigreren van bepaalde aspecten van de wetgeving zoals erfrecht. Moge Allah hen leiden. Het is hierom dat er een verklaring en uitleg is uitgebracht namens de geleerden van Al-Azhar die de kwestie toelichten.

In de islam zijn bepaalde aspecten van de reine wetgeving met doorslaggevende bronnen vast komen te staan die daarnaast eenduidig zijn, waardoor een herinterpretatie daarin niet mogelijk is. Deze aspecten van de wetgeving zijn derhalve geen onderwerp voor Idjtihad. Een van deze voorbeelden is de erfverdeling. Deze aspecten behoren tot de vereisten van het geloof en kunnen nimmer verworpen worden voor iemand die gelooft in al hetgeen gekomen is van de nobele Profeet Vrede zij met hem.

Er zijn inderdaad ook bepaalde aspecten van de wetgeving die middels Zann (niet eenduidig niet doorslaggevend) zijn vastkomen te staan en zijn derhalve vatbaar voor Idjtihad, thans de reden dat de juristen onderling verschilden van mening.

Het past een moslim om op de hoogte te zijn van de zaken welke behoren tot de vereisten der geloof zodat het volk niet ten prooi valt in de valse retoriek van hen die plachten de boodschap van de nobele Profeet Vrede zij met hem te ondermijnen.

In het onderstaande Engelse artikel kunt u een toelichting vinden van Al-Azhar die de rationele argumenten en uitleg inzake erfverdeling toelicht.

Geparafraseerd.

Praise be to Allah. May Allah’s peace and blessings be upon Prophet Muhammad.

The Islamic Sharia is unique in nature, for it is effective and valid beyond times and places. As a sign of flexibility, it considers all conditions of people, given their diverse cases and differences. This flexibility is not a feature of all texts of Sharia; some texts are constantly invariable and inalterable; they are not open for further human reasoning, such as the texts related to faith, worship and morality.

The Islamic texts of inheritance belong to this definite section, which accepts no human reasoning or change. Allah, the Almighty, has prescribed its rules and norms himself for their importance and significance. The noble Sharia has explained this area and removed all causes of conflict and discord, but fake claims, objections, and accusations of being unfair and biased never ended. Before we clarify the philosophy of the distribution of inheritance in Islam, the following points must be clarified:
First: A Muslim, who truly submits to Allah—the Almighty, with firm and sincere faith in Allah as his Lord, and in Muhammad as his Prophet—finds it enough to know that Allah—the Almighty, is the One who commands these laws, so s/he would accept them.
Second: It is essential to understand the difference between justice and equality. The achievement of justice depends on achieving equality.
Third: If we want to demonstrate the philosophy of inheritance in Islam, especially the inheritance of women, we should not lose sight of the reality of other nations regarding the same issue.
Fourth: Islam had excelled other positive laws and legislations in relation to giving women fair treatment and equal rights through the following:
1. Islam has abrogated all unfair practices against women, especially in the area of inheritance. The Holy Qur’an refers to some of these unfair practices saying, “O believers! You are forbidden to inherit women against their will. Nor should you treat them with harshness to take away part of the dower you have given them” (Qur’an 4:19)”
2. Islam has granted women the right to guardianship over her property, giving her an independent financial competency to undertake liabilities and receive rights. Allah, the Almighty, said, “To men is allotted what they earn, and to women what they earn, and ask Allah of His bounty. For Allah has full knowledge of all things” (Qur’an 4:32).
3. Islam has declared women qualified to conclude all financial contracts by themselves, such as contracts of sales, pawns, partnerships, etc. The Prophet even said, “Woman are the counterpart of men” (Abu Dawud and al-Tirmidhi).
4. Islam has given women specific shares in the estate of the deceased. Allah, the Almighty, says, “Men shall have a portion of what the parents and the near relatives leave, and women shall have a portion of what the parents and the near relatives leave, whether there is little or much of it; a stated portion” (Qur’an 4:7).
To sum up, men and women have equal rights under Islam to earn money, work, wages, and financial dues.

Actually, the system of inheritance has an independent philosophy, which can be summarized through the following points:
First: The claim that Islamic inheritance system gives males as much as double the share of female’s share is misleading and untrue. Investigating the details of inheritance system proves a woman may, in some cases, receive more than men or receive the same share of men. Or she may be entitled to a share in inheritance while men have nothing, which occurs in more than thirty cases. She receives half of man’s share in four cases only.
Second: The variation of shares in the Islamic system of inheritance has nothing to do with masculinity or femininity at all. In fact, it depends on three factors:
1. The degree of kinship: the closer the degree a person has to the deceased person, the greater the share of inheritance s/he receives.
2. The position of the inheriting generation; the younger the inheriting generation, the greater share they receive. Thus, the share of the deceased’s son is bigger than the deceased’s father even if the son is still an infant for s/he is in more need of money.
3. Costs and financial burdens: In case the degree of kinship and the inheriting generation are equal, shares vary in line with the expected financial burdens of inheritors. The legal maxims states that “Entitlement to profits goes in line with burdens and responsibilities undertaken i.e. profits are parallel to the legally imposed burdens and duties.
Third: Islam, upon the time of revelation, observed the realities of people’s life and reformed imbalance. It educated the arrogant pre-Islamic people and turned them into a nation that keeps covenants, fulfills rights, and gives women the right to inheritance through a just and integrated legal system.
It is unforgettable here to stress that depriving women of heritage or forcing her to yield and abandon it for a sum of money or benefit is totally forbidden in Islam. Abu Bakrah narrated that the Messenger of Allah (Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said, “There is no sin whose punishment is more worthy that Allah hastens to apply it in this world, let alone what is in store for the sinner in the Hereafter, than tyranny and severing ties of kinship.” Undoubtedly, depriving a woman of her inheritance is a kind of severing ties of kinship and oppression, which incurs quick punishment in this life and in the hereafter as well.
Islam is a wholly integrated and perfectly inseparable religion. It is unfair to judge it without perfect implementation in life. The issue of inheritance is related to a series of other issues. This article is just an endeavor to highlight of these interrelated relationship to reconsider the situation from a different approach.
May Allah grant us good understanding, inclusive knowledge, and guide us to the right path.

#Women_Inheritance_In_Islam
#Islam_Women
#AlAzhar_Fatwa_Global_Center

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Children of my wife from her previous marriage

Question Are the children of my wife from her previous marriage considered strangers to me?
Answer Whoever told you this has no idea of what he is talking about. The children of your second wife hold a special status in relation to you. If you read the Quranic verse 23 of Surah 4 which lists the women a man may not marry, you will find that a man may not marry his wife’s daughter from another marriage once he has consummated the marriage with her mother. In other words, if you have consummated your marriage to your second wife, you are prohibited from ever marrying her daughter; you cannot marry her even if you divorce your second wife or if she dies. The case of your wife’s son is different because he is not related to you or to your first wife in any way. He is a stranger to your first wife and will remain so. And God Almighty knows best.
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Should women pray in the mosque or at home

Question Should women pray the Taraweeh and the rest of the prayers in the mosque or at home? Answer A woman should pray Taraweeh wherever she likes. If she wants to pray at home, she can, and if she wants to go the mosque to find strength and support by being with her sisters and brothers in worshiping God then she can. The point is not the location, as a woman should pray where she finds her heart in humility towards God. Imam al-Shafi’i was of the opinion that praying Taraweeh in the mosque or at home is equal in reward for both men and women. Accordingly, a woman cannot be prevented from going to pray in the mosque either for attending a lesson, for praying Taraweeh, or for reciting the Quran. This is what our Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) taught us when he said to men, “Do not prevent the slave women of God [i.e. women] from the houses of God.” The statement of the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) addressing women, “Your prayer at home is good,” is based on the preference of women to be protected and veiled. And God Almighty knows best.

Performing hajj for a woman in menstruation or postnatal bleeding

Question

What is the manner of performing hajj for a woman in menstruation or postnatal bleeding?

Answer

A woman in menstruation or postnatal bleeding must continue the rites of hajj and ‘umrah and refrain from making tawaf until she is pure. As for a woman who fears that her companions may depart before she performs tawaf and cannot wait until she is pure from menstruation, some scholars have maintained that it is permissible for her to circumambulate the Ka’bah while wearing a sanitary pad to prevent her from soiling the Mosque. As for tawaf al-wada’, it is permissible for a woman to omit it.

And God Almighty knows best.

   

 

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